“PARTS OF SPEECH”
“We need to divide words according to the functions they perform and categories they fall in. So, those different kinds or classes in which we divide words are called parts of speech.”
Words are categorized among different classes on the basis of their use that is according to the work they perform in a sentence. As, a sentence is composed of different words joined together in a specific order. That is why we say that different parts of speech combine together in order to make a single complete meaningful sentence.
List of Parts of Speech:
There are 9 parts of speech in English. They are enlisted below:
NOTE: Some grammarians do not consider DETERMINERS as a part of speech because according to them, determiners are those words which do not perform any function and we can complete our sentence without using them. But determiners are the part of our speech and we need to include them in our sentences to make it grammatically complete.
Now, we will be discussing all 9 parts of speech one by one in detail.
Noun is a naming word. In other words, we can say that a noun is a word used to name a person, place or thing. Any word used as a name of any person, place or thing is termed to be NOUN.
- Shakespeare is the king of playwrights.
- On the top of the hill lives a hermit.
- He is a talented student.
- I love cats as a pet animal.
- He usually travels to Dubai for his business.
In above examples, underlined words are called “NOUNS” because they are the names of a person, animal and place.
TYPES OF NOUN:
Nouns are categorized into two main branches. They are:
- Proper noun
- Common noun
1. PROPER NOUN:
Proper noun is a noun used for some particular person, thing or place. We usually denote proper nouns with a capital letter.
In above examples,
Shakespeare, cat and Dubai are Proper nouns because they are used for a particular person (Shakespeare), particular animal (cat) and a particular place (Dubai).
2. COMMON NOUN:
Common noun is a noun used in common for every person, thing or place. They are not denoted by a capital letter.
In above examples,
Hermit and student are common nouns because they are not used to denote any particular hermit or any particular student. So, we call them common nouns.
Adjective is a word used to describe a noun. It tells us more about a noun.Its function is to add more information to the meaning of a noun.
- He is a talented student.
- You are drinking cold water.
- Lahore is a big city.
- She is the tallest girl of her class.
- You are wearing a nice dress.
In these examples, underlined words (talented, cold, big, tallest and nice) are adjectives because they are used to qualify nouns that are student, water, city, girl and dress.
Note: For Mcqs and online test of Adjectives Click Here
Verb is an action word because it shows an action or state performed by a noun.
- Alina is writing a letter to her uncle.
- She works hard to pass the exam.
- The cat jumps over the table.
- Sun rises in the East.
- Always speak the truth.
In above mentioned examples, the words (writing, works, jumps, rises and speak) are verbs because they are used to express an action performed by a noun.
TYPES OF VERB:
There are three main types of verb. They are:
- Main Verbs or Action Verbs
- Linking Verbs.
- Modal Verbs.
1. MAIN VERBS or ACTION VERBS:
Main verb is that verb which is used to state the action of the subject (doer). It exactly shows the action or work performed by the subject of our sentence.
- He walked down the street.
- Rama writes
- She is eating a mango.
- We all laughed at him.
- Sunny goes to school by bus.
In these examples, the underlined words express a physical action of the subject i.e. these words are showing actions performed by the subject.
2. LINKING VERBS or AUXILIARY VERBS:
Linking verbs are those verbs which are used to depict a state or a condition of the subject instead of an action. They are also called “HELPING VERBS” because they also work to help the main verbs.
- I love my father from the core of my heart.
- He feels gloomy today because he lost his wallet.
- She is tired of her tough routine.
- I enjoyed today’s trip with my friends.
- I am going to meet her.
In these examples, love, feels, and enjoyed are linking verbs because they are used to express a state or condition of the subject while is and am are helping verbs because they are used to help main verbs (tired and going).
3. MODAL VERBS:
Modal verbs are used to show thoughts or attitudes of the speaker or subject of the sentence about what they tend to say. They are also used to state possibility, permission or suggestion the speaker wants to give.
- You can come tomorrow.
- You might have seen this film.
- May I come in?
- You should offer five times prayer daily.
- You can do whatever you wish to.
In these examples, words like can, might, may, and should are modal verbs as they are used to take permission, to allow someone and to suggest others.
NOTE: Modal verbs also aid main verbs in a sentence.
An adverb is another important part of speech which is used to add something more to the meaning of a verb, adjective or another adverb. So, we can say that an adverb qualifies / describes three things:
- Another adverb
- He writes fastly.
- This flower is very beautiful.
- He wrote an essay quite.
In above examples, all three underlined words are categorized as adverbs because they are performing similar functions.
- In the first example, fastly is an adverb because it describes a verb (write).
- In the second example, very is an adverb because it describes an adjective (beautiful).
- In the third example, quite is an adverb because there it describes another adverb (correctly). So, the last example has two adverbs in it.
A pronoun, as its name indicates that it is used instead of a noun. Its function is to take the place of a noun in order to avoid the reputation of nouns in a text.
Examples of pronoun:
- Horain is absent today because she is ill.
- They are going back to their homes.
- The principal is worried because he saw a bad result of his students.
- She took shelter under a tree.
- You should always speak the truth.
In these examples, she, they, he and you are pronouns because these words are used instead of a noun. They replace nouns by taking their places.
NOTE: Pronouns are also called Personal Pronouns.
TYPES OF PRONOUN:
Following are enlisted different types of pronouns:
- Reflexive pronoun.
- Relative pronoun.
- Distributive pronoun.
1. REFLEXIVE PRONOUN:
When we add –self to my, it, he, she, your, him, her and –selves to your, our, them, we get reflexive pronouns.
- He hurts himself by falling for her unconditionally.
- We often deceive ourselves.
- She set herself a hard task.
- Ahmed always puts himself.
In these examples, underlined words are reflexive pronouns as self and selves is added to personal pronouns.
2. RELATIVE PRONOUN:
Relative pronouns are those pronouns which tend to relate or refer to some noun mentioned earlier. They are the words like who, which, that or whose etc.
- The girl who was there is my friend.
- Here is the bag which you gifted me.
- This is the girl whose exercise is done well.
- This is the man who will be working with you.
- Is this the dress that you liked most?
In these examples, who, which, whose, and that are relative pronouns as they relate some noun already mentioned.
3. DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS:
Distributive pronouns are those pronouns which refer to a person or thing one at a time.
- Either of you can come with me.
- Each of these men gets a prize.
- Neither of the excuses is true.
A preposition is a word which is used with a noun and also with a pronoun. Its function is to depict how the person or the thing, which is denoted by a noun or pronoun, stands in relation to something else.
SOME IMPORTANT PREPOSITIONS:
Following are enlisted important prepositions:
By, under, of, in, beside, among, up, down, off, over, from, on, at, for, through, till, to, out, with, about, above, across, along, around, before, behind, beneath, amongst, below, between, beyond, inside, outside etc.
- Alina is fond of
- There is a beautiful flower in our garden.
- The cat is under the table.
- What are you looking for?
- She went to the market.
- He could not come
- He ruled over a vast empire.
- After Two years he returned back.
- I jumped off the car.
- That book is on the table.
In these examples, the underlined words are prepositions because they show a relation of one noun or pronoun with another noun or pronoun.
Prepositions are also used to show a direction of a noun and hence it completes a sentence.
Note: For Mcqs and online test of Prepositions Click Here
A conjunction is another important part of speech as it is a word used to join different words or sentences together. Its function is to join different words or sentences in a sequence to make a sentence comprehensive.
SOME IMPORTANT CONJUNCTIONS:
For, and, not, neither, but, or, yet, so, however, after, since, before, either, because, unless etc.
Examples of conjunction:
- Alina and Maria went to the market.
- I worked hard but failed the test.
- You are free to join our team or to leave it.
- He was tired yet he still went to the market.
- I will go to meet her but not before I have had my lunch.
In these examples, the underlined words are conjunctions because they are used to join different words and sentences together.
Interjection is that part of speech which is used to express someone’s feelings, emotions or expressions. The function of interjection is to show the feelings or state of a noun.
- Hurrah! We won the match.
- Alas! he is dead.
- Wao! It’s a beautiful flower.
- Wah! you have performed an excellent task.
- Ahhh! she deceived me.
In above mentioned examples, the underlined words (hurrah, alas, Wao, Wah and Ahhh) are interjections because they are used to express the feelings and state of the speaker.
In the first and third example, we came to know from interjections that the speaker’s state is quite good and he is exciting because used interjections depict the feelings of the speaker.
In the second example, we came to know that the speaker is not happy, rather he is sad and gloomy because the interjection used in this example depicts the sadness of the speaker.
Determiners are also a part of speech. They are the words like a, an, the, this, that, these, those, every, each, some, any, my, his, one, two etc. So, the function of determiners is to determine the meaning of a noun which it follows and also to point out some particular or specific thing, person, place or animal.
- This is my book.
- One of you can come with me.
- An apple is my favorite fruit.
- That is the pen you are looking for.
- Everyone likes his good character.
In these examples, (this, one, an, that and everyone) are determiners as they are used to limit / determine the meaning of a noun with which they are used. In other words, these words are used to point out some particular thing. In above examples, these determiners are pointing out a particular book, a particular person and a particular fruit (apple).